This is a disorder that causes the glandular tissue of the male breast to expand. An imbalance of the primary sex hormones, estrogen and testosterone is the main cause. The hormones testosterone and estrogen control sex characteristics in both men and women.
Testosterone controls male traits, such as muscle mass and body hair. Estrogen controls female traits, including the growth of breasts. This condition can as well be triggered by drugs and substance abuse including; alcohol, anabolic steroids used to build muscle and enhance athletic performance, marijuana, heroin and methadone (methadose).Those with health conditions such as hypogonadism, a condition which lowers testosterone production, aging men , tumors, kidney failure, liver failure and malnutrition are at a higher risk of getting this condition .
Several medications such as anabolic steroids and androgens used to correct hormone deficits, anti-anxiety medications, ulcer treatments, and chemotherapy to treat cancer, can as well cause gynecomastia. Plant oils used in shampoos, soaps, and lotions, such as tea tree or lavender, have been linked to gynecomastia. This is most likely because of their low estrogenic activity.
Both breasts are affected, and the severity of the effect varies. It is a common scenario in which it affects males of all ages, but it can also resolve itself with time. This disorder is more prone to occur during times of hormonal fluctuation, such as infancy, puberty, and old age. Gynecomastia isn’t a life-threatening disorder, but it can be difficult to live with. Men and boys with gynecomastia may experience pain in their breasts and feel self-conscious.
The most common symptoms of gynecomastia are lumps under the nipple area, abnormal breast development, and tender breasts. This condition can be seen in newborns and, in most circumstances, vanishes as the kid grows. Hands can feel the swelling of the disk-shaped glandular tissue right beneath the nipple. Disturbance of this area frequently causes itching as a result of discomfort. Most men’s breast sensitivity varies, with some experiencing mild soreness and others experiencing severe and unbearable pain. It’s worth noting that not all males who are impacted have the same symptoms. Once the symptoms manifest, it is advisable to consult a physician for purposes of carrying out a medical diagnosis.
So according to researchers, they have estimated that the prevalence among men ages 50 to 80 is between 24% and 65%. However, most men with this condition experience no symptoms. Medical treatments for gynecomastia are available; however there is little evidence of their usefulness.
Testosterone replacement therapy has been shown to be useful in older men with low testosterone levels, but it is ineffective in persons with normal testosterone levels. Gynecomastia can be treated with clomiphene which is used for a period of up to 6 months. Tamoxifen (Nolvadex), a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), has been proven to diminish breast volume in gynecomastia, however it did not completely eradicate the breast tissue.This treatment is often reserved for gynecomastia that is severe or uncomfortable
Nevertheless, Medication is unlikely to be successful once the tissue has become scarred, leaving surgical intervention as the only option. In extreme cases of the illness, long-term gynecomastia, or when current treatment has failed to restore a normal breast appearance, reduction mammoplasty (breast reduction surgery) has been adopted. On the other hand, Gynecomastia is rarely linked to long-term complications.